An analysis of Literary Culture in Pakistan in the light of Sufi Kalam ‘Tere Ishaq Nachayaa by Baba Bulleh Shah
Keywords:literal translation, source and target language, Baba Bulleh Shah
Translation from source to the target language is an emerging field in applied linguistics. This plays a significant role in compressing the cultural and communication gap. Literal translation makes the reciprocal communicative process more fluent. Translation of Punjabi mystic poems creates a new path to exploring indigenous Sufi literature in Pakistan and foreign culture. The researcher has researched ‘Tere Ishaq Nachyaa by B. Bulleh Shah’ a Punjabi poem and translated it into the target English language. This is analyzed qualitatively under the theoretical framework of Newmark’s (1988) Literal Translation approach. This study aims to find out the structure, syntactic and semantic levels. The result based on analysis reveals the translator uses the present perfect tense at the most frequent ratio. There has been used past participle, adjectives, adverb, transitive verbs, possessive and objective pronouns, proper nouns, and interjection as well. Furthermore, Nicholson makes elegant variations in this poem like the structure of the poem comprises five stanzas and each stanza consists of five lines except the fourth stanza which comprises four lines but the poem in source language consists of six stanzas. The first stanza consists of five lines but the last stanza consists of three lines and the rest of the stanzas comprise four lines. Investigator finds out there are some lexicons in the translated poem and those are used out of context. Like, romance, ablest, lid, and lie are used out of context i.e. the word spiritual ecstasy can be used in place of romance. There are used elision in translated text like ‘^eacock. The result shows the translation is well woven but there is some loophole in semantics because of the cultural and religious gap.