Theoretical Framework: An Investigation into Transversal Competencies Among Pakistani Undergraduates


  • Farhana Yasmin Lahore Garrison University
  • Dr. Muhammad Islam University of the Punjab, Pakistan



Theoretical Framework of TVC for Lifelong Learning, Zone of Proximal Development, Mixed methods research design


A theoretical framework is indispensable for a research study to ground it in theoretical constructs. The purpose of the present study was to develop the theoretical framework for a mixed-methods study on transversal competencies. The strategies of developing the theoretical framework were followed including: alignment of research problem and title of the study; key variables of the study; review of the literature; relevant variables of the study; selection of theory(ies) which can best explain the key variables of the study; discuss the propositions of the selected theory and point out their relevance to your research. The theory of Zone of Proximal Development by Vygotsky (1978) in alignment with Constructivism paradigm was selected to understand and explain the transversal competencies as the key variable of the present study. A Theoretical Framework of TVC for Lifelong Learning was developed. It defined the key variables of the study including: departmental, pedagogical and institutional strategies to analyze and interpret the data to be gathered, understand the variables in view of definitions, and build knowledge by validating or challenging theoretical propositions: MKO, Contextual aspect, Social aspect, Personal aspect, and Scaffolding. It was a framework to not only interpret the new research data for future but also a response to new problems for identifying strategies. It was significant to limit the scope of the study by focusing on the key variables.