International Journal of Linguistics and Culture 2022-12-26T08:26:58+00:00 Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Linguistics and Culture (IJLC)is an international, peer-reviewed and open-access bi-annual journal, correspondence in the fields of arts, and humanities. The aim of <strong>IJLC </strong>is to publish Original research articles , review articles in the fields of humanities and social science such as literature, linguistics, anthropology, business studies, communication studies, , cross cultural studies, economics, education, history, information science, international relations, media studies, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, religious studies, and so on. The main objective of <strong>IJLC</strong> is to provide an intellectual platform for the national/international scholars. Its aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in humanities and social science and become the leading journal in the fields around the globe. The journal provides insightful explorations of new educational concepts and acceptes educational practices. This is independent of its kind that inspires up-to-date research endeavour from research territory, latest deliberation, artistic trend, cultural nuances, cross cultural exploration and subsequent innovation of subjects concerned.</p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor, The Women University Multan</p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>CHIEF EDITOR</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan</strong></p> <p>Chairperson/ Associate Professor,</p> <p>Department of English, The Women University Multan</p> <p>Email:</p> <p> </p> Representation of Nationalism and Identity in the Speeches of Martin Luther King Jr 2022-12-16T05:55:19+00:00 Saba Nasir Husnat Ahmed Muhammad Shakil ur Rehman <p>This research paper examines Martin Luthers renowned speeches ‘I have a dream’ and ‘I have been to the mountaintop’ from discourse analysis perspective. This articles deals with the elements of ideology and nationalism that may be embedded within these speeches. The research study analyses how it really resides on the grounds of Norman aircloughs three-dimensional model (1989). This study seeks to dissect speeches in order to identify language tools used by Luther by evaluating it on three dimensions:textual, discursive, and socio-political practices. It also serves as a backdrop for issues such as economic, cultural, and sociopolitical inequality. This study contributes to the understanding of the numerous approaches in which King Luther may have expressed ideology and nationalism in his speeches.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Linguistic Glocalization as a Promotional Strategy by Multi-National Fast-Food Chains: A Case Of Pakistan 2022-12-16T06:06:25+00:00 Amna Noor Hafiz Syed Muhammad Yasir <p>This research discusses that how international fast food chains use glocal strategies for promoting and localizing their brands in Pakistan. The major source, that these fast food chains use, is advertisements, and their focus is on the language of the target country. The purpose is to investigate the language of advertisements and how they use local language in special events of Pakistan, and thus promote their products through local language in advertisements. Qualitative research approach has been used for the analysis of advertisements and to answer the research questions. The concepts of universalizing and particularizing tendencies by Ronald (1980) and the theory of ‘Cultural Glocality’ by Fernandez (2009) with some modifications, have been used as a theoretical framework. For this purpose, top three international fast food chains such as, McDonald’s, KFC, and Pizza Hut have been selected. All the advertisements from<br>January 2021 to June 2021 have been collected for this research. Findings reveal that international fast food chains are more popular in Pakistan because of the language they use in their advertisements to attract and convey their message to their customers. After analyzing the data, it is concluded that the main glocal strategies are the use of the local language(s), code switching, use of location, use of cultural and religious events and language features, which they exhibit through their advertisements. By using local language, they promote their products and at the same time localize themselves in Pakistan.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Distribution should undo Excess: A Marxian Deconstruction of In Other Rooms, Other Wonders 2022-12-16T06:14:00+00:00 Shaehroz Anjum Butt Zareena Qasim Maryam Javed <p>The study in question is descriptive in nature and confirms primarily to the qualitative parameters of the research which is triangulated by the tabulation of the frequency of the lexical items. It takes into account a short story namely Provide, Provide extracted from the collection of stories entitled In Other Rooms, Other Wonders (2009) by Daniyal Mueenuddin. The selected text has been subjected to Marx’s concept of class stratification, as he sees history divided into two broad classes of oppressor and oppressed. The researcher has further scrutinized the text by applying the model of lexical cohesion expounded by Halliday and Hassan (1976). The analysis has been carried out by close reading of the text and by shining light on the instances where the glaring class divide is evident. Further, the lexical cohesion is evaluated by carrying out the analysis in manual terms along with the corpus tool AntConc 3.5.9 for more clarification. The findings indicate that the characters fall into two opposing classes which highlight the Marxian perspective prevalent in the text. Additionally, the lexical choice of the author validates the same subject matter embedded in the story. This elucubration is significant in the sense that it utilizes the both literary conception and linguistic tool for the clarification of the analysis. Therefore, it paves the way for researchers to unlock the potential in social sciences by crafting a complex of theoretical frameworks.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Portrayal of Violence against Women in Pakistani Urdu Newspapers 2022-12-16T06:37:33+00:00 Shaista Shehzadi Arshad Ali Ayyaz Mahmood <p>The study aims to highlight the violence against women depicted by Pakistani Urdu Newspapers. According to a recent study, the print media described women as weak, conquered, and deeply drowned in patriarchy. However, violence against women can take many forms, including domestic violence, rape, and honor killings. The study is qualitative in nature and the type of data is primary. The samples contain articles about violence against women from two different Pakistani Urdu Newspapers. Sample contains a total of four articles showing how the newspapers tend to portray violence against women. News that highlight the plight of violence against women comes from two different Urdu Newspapers i.e. Daily Jang and Express. The sampling procedure performed in this study is critical case sample and the study design is cross-cutting. The research tool used in the current study is Lazar feminist critical discourse analysis model (FCDA) (2014). The data is analyzed at various levels. First, it is translated into English using Nida’s Theory of Translation. Then, it is analyzed using Lazar FCDA at the vocabulary, syntax, and paralanguage levels, Lazars model (2014) is applied to effectively assess how the print media portrays violence against women. The results reveal that the Pakistani Urdu Newspapers are very tabloid, trying to portray women as weak, oppressed, oppressed, immobile, and vulnerable to violence. Women are more vulnerable to male violence because of the patriarchal structure embedded in our society.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Accounting for the Unaccountable: The Problem of Evil in the Post 9/11 Fiction with Special Reference to Don DeLillo’s Falling Man 2022-12-16T06:45:52+00:00 Umar Shehzad <p>An account of evil is an oxymoronic construction because, as Terry Eagleton puts it, evil is like “boarding a crowded commuter train wearing only a giant boa constrictor” i.e. incomprehensible by its very nature. However, evil has variously been described as the underbelly of religion, the backyard of morality, and inassimilable waste and byproduct of existence. In the post 9/11 fiction, problematics of evil have been dealt in three distinct and mutually contradictory ways: as a fissure in the cosmic order, as an inevitable fallout of power politics on the international stage, and finally as part of the normal human condition and thus a continuation of average everydayness. Don DeLillo’s Falling Man, an important post 9/11 work of fiction, stages all three strategies. Therefore, when the novel starts with taking up the big questions – Man vs God, good vs evil, determinism vs free will, east vs west, the narrative soon descends to the depiction of the average dailiness of the daily and the little emotional dramas it entails, leaving the fundamentals to fend for themselves.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Style in Fiction: A Stylistic Analysis of Overcoat by Ghulam Abbas 2022-12-16T06:49:05+00:00 Mumtaz Hussain Wasim Hassan Malik Sabeeha Rehman <p>Stylistics uses methods of science of linguistics for textual interpretation. Language is a very important to stylisticians because diverse forms and levels that construct linguistic structure are vital index regarding textual function. The present study analyses a short story Overcoat (2014) written by Ghulam Abbas under the perspective of Leech and Short’s (2007) model of stylistic analysis. This model consists of four extensive categories. These categories are Lexical, Grammatical, Figures of Speech and Cohesion and Context. The basic idea that the selected short story contains is that we should judge people morally not materially as several people pose to be wealthy try to conceal their poverty and deprivation because elite class looks down upon them. The study reaches at the conclusion that the writer has skillfully dealt with the theme with a serene and restraint but effective language or style that is peculiar to him.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Trends of Verbal Bullying among University Students: A Sociolinguistic Analysis 2022-12-16T06:52:49+00:00 Lubna Maryam Abid Qamreen <p>Bullying remains a pervasive problem within the educational institutions of Pakistan. Students, especially the ones with any kind of disability are constant victims of bullying. Among the many forms of bullying, verbal bullying is the most common one. The objectives of the present study are to understand the trends of verbal bullying behavior within Pakistani Universities and to identify practical bullying prevention strategies. The study is delimited to studying only the verbal bullying that relates to the use of language to persecute, oppress or victimize people. The researcher has delimited the study to the undergraduate students of three major universities in Islamabad Pakistan: FAST-NUCES, NUST, and NUML. The present study uses questionnaires as a method of data collection. The study highlights the effects of verbal bullying on the health, well-being and also on educational career of students. This study concluded that bullying culture is common among the universities of Pakistan which is mainly reflected in the language students use. Keeping in mind the findings of the study, better strategies can be suggested to the educational institutions to deal with the bullying culture in their institutes so that students do not suffer at the hands of the bullies.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Traces of Marxism leading to Color Prejudice in the Novel based drama 2022-12-16T06:57:45+00:00 Bushra Meraj Ali Hassan Khan <p>The character of Parizaad from the drama Parizaad, aired on Hum TV in 2021, is the subject of the current study. Using Marxist theory, we were able to better understand the character of Parizaad in the narrative. The qualitative analysis of the data was carried out by the researcher. Its possible that Marxism had an influence onthis drama. Hashims Urdu novel Parizaad shows the terrible reality of Pakistani society in all its complexity, and is a must-read for anybody interested in the countrys history. For a change, its a breath of fresh air to read a story that takes on Pakistani societys laws as well as the rich and powerful in such a straightforward way. Numerous Parizaad have died as a result of the current societal system crushing them under its weight. Race, injustice, and socioeconomic inequality are just a few of the issues that are addressed in it. It has been identified that the drama portrayed the racial and class discrimination in the society through realistic lens and exposed the plight of the poor, marginalized and often ridiculed poor class.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 What to choose, Linguistics or Literature? - Analyzing the predicaments faced by university students of Okara district concerning their area of specialization 2022-12-16T07:04:43+00:00 Waqar Mahmood Khan <p>Selecting the perfect area of specialization can be a vital step when one is pursuing a degree of BS or M.Phil. in English. This seems what an individual must aim to follow to assist them to get ahead in their professional life and career. One can regard it as a game changer or an important decision that a student needs to consider and it is at times difficult to identify as to which specific area best suits the needs and interests of a given learner. Students of BS and M.Phil. levels in English are perplexed either to opt for Linguistics or Literature as their area of specialization. In this regard, adequate and timely career planning/counseling is highly significant and is needed on an emergent basis to overcome the prevailing ambiguity among the students. Lack of career counseling is leading to numerous problems. The primary objective of this study has been to identify and highlight the lack of awareness among our students about their decision-making and career selection, which in turn possibly leads to numerous problems for the students in their career prospects. The studys respondents include the BS, M.Phil. English students from the Okara district of Pakistan’s Punjab. This study uses the quantitative paradigm with survey research being its research design. Data has been gathered through a Close-ended questionnaire. The sample from study respondents from an Okara-based university has been derived based on Convenience sampling. Data collected from the population was analyzed via Microsoft Excel and represented in bar diagrams. There must be courses of at least 2 or 3 credit hours on career selection and decision-making in our BS-level curriculum to combat the currentscenario of poor planning and decision-making in terms of career selection.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Trauma in the movie Ordinary People (1980): An investigation of psychological trauma and recovery from a traumatic experience 2022-12-16T06:22:45+00:00 Hajra Umer Sabah Aziz <p>Trauma theory is an emerging field that is interdisciplinary and incorporates both psychological and physiological studies related to trauma. The main focus of trauma theory is the exploration of the workings and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Embedded in the trauma theory, this research aims at carrying out a qualitative analysis in order to explore the workings of trauma and recovery from traumatic experience. The study shall deal with analyzing Conrad’s character in the movie Ordinary People (1980) by evaluating different behavioral patterns exhibited by him in the movie. In order to explore the working of trauma, the study shall utilize the diagnostic criteria provided by the American Psychiatric Association (2013) that lists the symptoms related to traumatic disorder. In order to explore the process of recovery, Herman’s three stage model (1992) of recovery from trauma is utilized. The research findings conclude that Conrad’s character suffers from trauma exhibiting most of the symptoms listed in the diagnostic manual. These symptoms include nightmares, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, isolation, irritability etc. The findings also show that Conrad’s character successfully undergoes all three stages of recovery. He transforms into an emotionally stable individual after the recovery process occurs. The study has made use of the film medium in order to create awareness about the trauma related issues focusing on the role of professional and social help for traumatic individuals.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A Psychodynamic Perspective of the Protagonists in the Novel "Turtles all the Way Down" by John Green 2022-12-16T07:12:52+00:00 Areej Fatima Muntazar Mehdi <p>The purpose of this study is to extract the elements of Obsessive?Compulsive Disorder hereinafter OCD found in the personality traits of the main character of the novel Turtles All The Way Down written by an American author John Green. As defined by Csigo, 2021, “OCD is a disorder of personality organization and ego-organization.” The novel operates at the two levels of the story: on one level, there is a romantic story going on between Aza Holmes and Davis Pickett while on the other hand, there is an inner conflict of Aza that is because of her mental illness, known as OCD. To demonstrate the traits of mental illness in the character of Aza, the Psychodynamic Theory of OCD has been applied to the selected content of the novel. The method for study is based on qualitative research method and the model is descriptive. The references from the novel has been extracted to carry out the analysis of the novel in the light of<br>Psychodynamic Theory of OCD. It has been found and confirmed by the results of analysis that the female protagonist of Green’s novel is patient of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the traits of OCD are reflected throughout the novel in Aza’s behavior.</p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Alienation, Embodiment, and Search for Authenticity Under Capitalism in Mieko Kawakami’s Breasts and Eggs 2022-12-26T08:23:27+00:00 Aniqua Munawar Fariha Chaudhary <p><em>Existentialism, a philosophy introduced in the twentieth century, is still relevant in today’s world. However, its implications have gained more dimensions since the understanding of cultural phenomena keeps deepening. Existentialism coupled with Marxism can provide us an understanding of contemporary structures and patterns of human society. Women subjected to their domestic duties and capitalism demands of contributing to the workforce form the subject of this study. Their alienation from the body is augmented by invidious patriarchal demands put on their bodies coupled with strait conditions of poverty. The study is an attempt at exploring the tenets of feminist existentialism in Mieko Kawakami’s novel </em>Breasts and Eggs<em>. The philosophical underpinnings underlying the study are feminist existentialism and Marxism. It will unveil the themes of embodiment, alienation, authenticity, Othering and bad faith in women who are constrained by their financial situation. The novel deals with the lives of three women in Tokyo. Their lives are characterised by their shared sense of the body and alienation. The novel highlights women’s day-to-day experiences and their quest for authenticity in a world hostile to self-assertion and authentic living.</em></p> 2022-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 An analysis of Literary Culture in Pakistan in the light of Sufi Kalam ‘Tere Ishaq Nachayaa by Baba Bulleh Shah 2022-12-26T08:26:58+00:00 Fatima Ali Iqra Ashraf Asfia Tahseen <p><em>Translation from source to the target language is an emerging field in applied linguistics. This plays a significant role in compressing the cultural and communication gap. Literal translation makes the reciprocal communicative process more fluent. Translation of Punjabi mystic poems creates a new path to exploring indigenous Sufi literature in Pakistan and foreign culture. The researcher has researched ‘Tere Ishaq Nachyaa by B. Bulleh Shah’ a Punjabi poem and translated it into the target English language. This is analyzed qualitatively under the theoretical framework of Newmark’s (1988) Literal Translation approach. This study aims to find out the structure, syntactic and semantic levels. The result based on analysis reveals the translator uses the present perfect tense at the most frequent ratio. There has been used past participle, adjectives, adverb, transitive verbs, possessive and objective pronouns, proper nouns, and interjection as well. Furthermore, Nicholson makes elegant variations in this poem like the structure of the poem comprises five stanzas and each stanza consists of five lines except the fourth stanza which comprises four lines but the poem in source language consists of six stanzas. The first stanza consists of five lines but the last stanza consists of three lines and the rest of the stanzas comprise four lines. Investigator finds out there are some lexicons in the translated poem and those are used out of context. Like, romance, ablest, lid, and lie are used out of context i.e. the word spiritual ecstasy can be used in place of romance. There are used elision in translated text like ‘^eacock. The result shows the translation is well woven but there is some loophole in semantics because of the cultural and religious gap.</em></p> 2022-12-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022