International Journal of Linguistics and Culture http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs <p>International Journal of Linguistics and Culture (IJLC)is an international, peer-reviewed and open-access bi-annual journal, correspondence in the fields of arts, and humanities. The aim of <strong>IJLC </strong>is to publish Original research articles , review articles in the fields of humanities and social science such as literature, linguistics, anthropology, business studies, communication studies, , cross cultural studies, economics, education, history, information science, international relations, media studies, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, religious studies, and so on. The main objective of <strong>IJLC</strong> is to provide an intellectual platform for the national/international scholars. Its aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in humanities and social science and become the leading journal in the fields around the globe. The journal provides insightful explorations of new educational concepts and acceptes educational practices. This is independent of its kind that inspires up-to-date research endeavour from research territory, latest deliberation, artistic trend, cultural nuances, cross cultural exploration and subsequent innovation of subjects concerned.</p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Prof. Dr. Kalsoom Pracha</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor, The Women University Multan</p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="mailto:vc@wum.edu.pk">vc@wum.edu.pk</a></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>CHIEF EDITOR</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan</strong></p> <p>Chairperson/ Associate Professor,</p> <p>Department of English, The Women University Multan</p> <p>Email: editor.ijlc@wum.edu.pk</p> <p> </p> The Women University Multan en-US International Journal of Linguistics and Culture 2707-6873 Play of Legalese in Witness Examination: A Forensic Perspective on Courtroom Discourse http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/203 <p>Courtroom discourse constitutes an integral component of dispensation of justice. This paper explores courtroom discourse in relation questions and responses on the witness stand during the proceedings of criminal cases in the courts of Islamabad, Pakistan. The discourse under study comprises examination-in-chief and cross-examination. The study attempts to highlight the strategic orientation of the courtroom discourse and, for the purpose, has collected and qualitatively analyzed three-tier data: transcripts of the recorded testimony from the District Courts; observations of courtroom proceedings; and open-ended questionnaires from witnesses, lawyers, and judges. Taking insights from Coulthard, Alison and Wright (2017), the analysis is carried out at three levels, i.e., asymmetrical relations between the interlocutors, distinguished audience, and institutional context. Findings show that language of the counsels restricts responses of the witnesses owing to strategic phrasing of the questions, exercise of control through language, and unfavorable environment of the court. This study may be of assistance in training of witnesses to deal with the situation on the stand, may guide forensic linguists about the intricacies of courtroom discourse, and may help ameliorate the deteriorated condition of the justice system in Pakistan.</p> Shaheen-ul-Zaman Aziz Ullah Khan Arshad Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Shaheen-ul-Zaman, Aziz Ullah Khan, Arshad Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 4 2 221 237 10.52700/ijlc.v4i2.203 Comparative Thematic Analysis of Social Science Research Articles by Pakistani and British Research Scholars: A Corpus-Based Study http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/239 <p>Writers maintain the texture of the text and information with appropriate thematic choices. Previous studies have established that the problem of jumbled information existed in the academic writings of non-native English writers. Considering this, the present study aimed to analyze social science research articles written by Pakistani and British researchers keeping textual metafunction as the focal point. The objectives were to explain the functional interpretation of the thematic structures and figure out the dominant theme type in collected 160 research articles. The data was analyzed through feature coding of UAM corpus software to find out frequencies and percentages of themes and their types. The results revealed that the frequencies of themes in Pak-19 and Pak-20 were 1066 and 1252, while the frequencies in Bri-19 and Bri-20 were 1519 and 1883. Further, the findings suggested that the topical theme was frequently used as compared to textual and interpersonal themes. The second highest ratio was of textual theme as the frequencies of interpersonal theme were less as compared to textual. The topical themes functioned as noun groups, while the textual themes connected new information with previous information. Based on the findings, it was established that unmarked topical themes were prevailing in the research articles. Further, the use of finite, continuatives, and conjunctions was prevalent in textual themes.</p> Sadia Munir Hafiz Muhammad Qasim Muhammad Shafqat Nawaz Copyright (c) 2023 Sadia Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim, Muhammad Shafqat Nawaz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 4 2 239 264 10.52700/ijlc.v4i2.239 Equivalence, Transposition, Modulation, and Adaptation in English or Urdu Translation of Shafak's Honour http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/205 <p>Translation is a complex process that ensures cross-cultural communication in the realm of literature and literary writings, translation has been used to educate and inform readers about other cultures and traditions. The source and target language English and Urdu respectively vary a great deal from each other therefore; the underlying differences between these languages become apparent contributing towards inevitable shifts in translation. This research comparatively analyses Elif Shafak’s novel Honour and its translation in Urdu done by Huma Anwar titled Namoos looking at oblique translation techniques such as: equivalence, transposition, modulation, and adaptation. This research analyses the various examples where these translational shifts are apparent and studies how they have an overall impact on the target text. This research is grounded in the theoretical framework postulated by Vinay and Darbelnet in their seminal work Comparative Stylistics of French and English: A methodology for translation (1958). Wherein, two main categories of translations have been identified: direct translation and oblique translation further classified as, direct translation and oblique translation. The study finds that translational shifts and techniques have been utilised by the translator to convey the intended meaning and message to the target audiences with minimal loss of essence.</p> <p>Keywords: Equivalence, Transposition, Modulation, Adaptation, Honour.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Snober Zahra Abeera Hassan Abdul Bari Khan Hafiza Sana Mansoor Copyright (c) 2023 Snober Zahra , Abeera Hassan, Abdul Bari Khan , Hafiza Sana Mansoor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 4 2 265 280 10.52700/ijlc.v4i2.205 Psychological Implications of Sexism: A Critical Analysis of Plath's The Bell Jar from Fredrickson's Perspective of Objectification Theory http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/210 <p>This thesis delves into an in-depth analysis of Sylvia Plath's novel "<em>The Bell Jar</em>," with a specific focus on examining the prevalent sexism within American society during the 1950s. The primary objective is to understand how this deeply ingrained sexism affected the psychological well-being of women during that era. Employing a quantitative research approach, the study critically dissects the dialogues of the characters within the novel, utilizing language and representations to uncover the extent of sexist attitudes. By employing <em>Fredrickson and Roberts' (1997) "Objectification Theory," </em>the research aims to demonstrate how Esther, the novel's protagonist, experiences significant mental health challenges as a direct result of pervasive sexist norms. The thesis also investigates the lasting impact of stereotypes that were pervasive in the 1950s on Esther's mental health. Ultimately, this study offers a nuanced exploration of how the lens of objectification theory can be used to analyze sexism's profound influence on mental health, as seen through the lens of a young student's experiences.</p> Sadia Nazeer Raheela Nisar Shumaila Afridi Copyright (c) 2023 Sadia Nazeer, Raheela Nisar, Shumaila Afridi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 4 2 281 300 10.52700/ijlc.v4i2.210 A Transitivity Analysis of Woman Representation in “Ashes to Ashes, Dust to Dust” http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/198 <p>One of the concerns of feminist linguists is to examine the language which is used to represent men and women of a society. The study in hand has considered this issue and tries to explore the language used by the female author dealing with issues of women of Pakistan. Shahla Abdullah's &nbsp;“Ashes to Ashes, Dust to Dust” is analyzed from the lens of the transitivity model. The emphasis is laid upon the woman's portrayal and the ideological representation through the transitivity patterning.&nbsp; The three steps analysis as given by Burton (1982) has been followed for the analysis of the data. Material and mental processes have been used dominantly with the frequency of 42.4% and 17% respectively which depicts the struggle of Pakistani women against oppression and marginalization.&nbsp;&nbsp; The findings demonstrate that the narrative constructed by Abdullah is the reiteration of the stereotypical woman who suffers due to the patriarchal setup and the hegemony of the male counterpart. The study concludes that being a woman, Abdullah could not deviate from the set norms and hence, is unable to construct a new discourse to inspire and empower the woman belonging to the underprivileged sect of society.&nbsp;</p> Anbarin Fatima Shumaila Ashee Copyright (c) 2023 Anbarin Fatima, Shumaila Ashee https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 4 2 301 322 10.52700/ijlc.v4i2.198 Explorative Study on Recidivism Factor of Gang Violence in Malaysia http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/236 <p>The number of crimes continues to rise high every year despite the imposition of punitive and harsh punishments. Gang violence is one of the parts of the crime that occurs in Malaysia. Gang violence is described as a violent phenomenon involving a group of people whose primary purpose is to engage in aggressive and delinquent behavior. Criminals who are involved in gang violence are substantially more likely to re-offend after being released than offenders who are not members of gangs. The objective of this study is to discuss the recidivism factors of gang violence in Malaysia. The Library Research approach was used in this study, where information and related statistics were gathered from a variety of sources. The psychological factors and criminogenic factors are the main factors of gang members return to the prison. The factors which are discussed in this study can help people to know the reasons gang members who are involved in violence return to prison.</p> Loganathan Krishan Saralah Devi Mariamdaran Chethiyar Copyright (c) 2023 Loganathan Krishan, Saralah Devi Mariamdaran Chethiyar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 323 330 10.52700/ijlc.v4i2.236 Taliban’s Resurgence in Afghanistan: The Frame Analysis of Editorials from Selected Pakistani Newspapers http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/177 <p>The resurgence of the Afghan Taliban on 15<sup>th</sup> August 2021 created great tension in the whole world and made the topic debatable all over the world. The present research analyzes the discourse produced on this highly debatable topic. The study entails the frame analysis of the discourse produced in the selected Pakistani editorials. For this purpose, two Pakistani newspapers are selected i-e Dawn and The Express Tribune. The sample is purposive and comprises six editorials, three from each selected newspaper. The sample of the study is taken from 15<sup>th</sup> August 2021- 31<sup>st</sup> December 2021. The research is qualitative and the data is analyzed using the Frame Analysis method given by Goffman (1974), and Entman (1993). The in-depth analysis of the study reveals that the Pakistani newspapers’ editorials somehow talk in favor of the Taliban. They frame the event positively while giving recommendations to the Taliban for the bright future of their government. The research is therefore significant because it contributes to the field of linguistics and Frame Analysis.</p> Hafsa Tanveer Dr. Akifa Imtiaz Dr. Asma Kashif Shahzad Copyright (c) 2023 Hafsa Tanveer , Dr. Akifa Imtiaz , Dr. Asma Kashif Shahzad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 331 345 10.52700/ijlc.v4i2.177 Implementing Improvisation Techniques to Teach Spoken English at Undergraduate Level: A Classroom Action Research http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/209 <p>The present study investigated the effectiveness of the implementation of improvisation techniques in the English language classroom to enhance the speaking skill of the students of BS level at the university of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. The improvement in students’ speaking scores and the betterment of the classroom ambiance were the two target goals of this research. The study employed the collaborative classroom action research design by following the Kemmis’ and Mctaggart (2004) spiral model as theoretical framework. The subject of the study was the first semester students of BS Secondary Education, University of the Punjab. The study carried out in two cycles where each cycle was based on four stages i.e. planning, action, observation and reflection. The results of the speaking exam show the significant progress of students speaking competence. Their average grades were increased from 2.43 in pretest scores to 3.23 during first cycle and 3.78 in the second cycle. It indicates a noticeable improvement. The Students’ cooperation, response and active participation in the activities in the whole teaching learning process highlights the higher motivation level and learning spirits after the implementation of the improvisation techniques. It was evidenced by their participation rates of 78.6% in cycle 1 and 88.6% participants in cycle 2.</p> Khalid Ahmed Asma Sharif Sadia Perween Arfan Akram Copyright (c) 2023 Khalid Ahmed, Asma Sharif, Sadia Perween, Arfan Akram https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-04 2024-01-04 4 2 347 362 10.52700/ijlc.v4i2.209