International Journal of Linguistics and Culture <p>International Journal of Linguistics and Culture (IJLC)is an international, peer-reviewed and open-access bi-annual journal, correspondence in the fields of arts, and humanities. The aim of <strong>IJLC </strong>is to publish Original research articles , review articles in the fields of humanities and social science such as literature, linguistics, anthropology, business studies, communication studies, , cross cultural studies, economics, education, history, information science, international relations, media studies, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, religious studies, and so on. The main objective of <strong>IJLC</strong> is to provide an intellectual platform for the national/international scholars. Its aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in humanities and social science and become the leading journal in the fields around the globe. The journal provides insightful explorations of new educational concepts and acceptes educational practices. This is independent of its kind that inspires up-to-date research endeavour from research territory, latest deliberation, artistic trend, cultural nuances, cross cultural exploration and subsequent innovation of subjects concerned.</p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor, The Women University Multan</p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>CHIEF EDITOR</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan</strong></p> <p>Chairperson/ Associate Professor,</p> <p>Department of English, The Women University Multan</p> <p>Email:</p> <p> </p> en-US (Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan) (Mr. Asghar Ali) Mon, 30 May 2022 06:26:47 +0000 OJS 60 Cultural Stance on The Notion of Tradition VS Modernity in Manju Kapur’s Contemporary Fiction <p><em>This research explores Manju Kapur's </em><em>Home from the perspective of modernity. Tensions between tradition and modernity, represented in the novel can be viewed against the influence of a western culture that has taken place in the 21st century within the lives of people in India. Ideological stance on the notions of tradition vs. modernity in respect to the conflicting issue, through the characters as Nisha, Rupa, Yashpal, Ajay, Vijaya, and Raju, where they almost abandoned their parental business style, traditional thinking and moves ahead of their way either in their business or in the family life. Characters in the novel are deviated from their social norms and values due to the influences of western values on Indian society is a sign of modernity. This research is qualitative in nature. This research approaches Kapur's Home from the theoretical perspectives of modernity that have appeared in the studies of Jurgen Habermas, Immanuel Kant, Michel Foucault, Peter Wagner, Dilip Parmeshwar Gaonkar, and Ziauddin Saradar. This research finds that joint family divides into a single settlement, characters start to adopt modernity, forgetting their traditional norms and values for their benefit.</em></p> Hassan Bin Zubair, Syeda Sughra Naqvi, Iqra Khadam Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Sun, 29 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Unraveling Proprietorial Patriarchal Structures: A Study of Sidhwa’s The Bride <p><em>This study intends to find out the position of women living in Pakistan during the process of their self-discovery and search for identity to become strong enough for an honourable survival. The study has been conducted through a textual analysis of Sidhwa’s novel The Bride while focusing on language, different customs and events represented by the author to highlight the patriarchal structures. The study also examines that women have been treated as commodities and objects without caring for their desires. Their disrespect of patriarchal notions may deprive them of existence as human beings. It pinpoints that women are oppressed, subjugated and marginalized through patriarchal structures rampant in the society like marriage, family and the concept of hounour. Any struggle to get liberation from oppression results in sexist violence. </em></p> Behzad Anwar, Shamshad Rasool, Saiqa Imtiaz Asif Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Sun, 29 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Phonics Content in PTB Primary Grade Text Books and Assessment Schemes: Scope for Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (TELL) and Assessment Tools <p>This research aims to evaluate the phonics content in primary level textbooks by Punjab textbook board and the assessment schemes from the perspectives of their strengths and weak aspects for teaching and assessing phonics as an oral skill. The scope for the technology-enhanced learning and assessing tools is also highlighted as a supporting tool for phonics teaching in government school system for the leaners and teachers simultaneously. Following a qualitative approach, the methodology of document analysis was adopted to carry out the evaluation through researcher made checklists. The English textbooks taught from KG-Grade V were surveyed thoroughly to investigate the phonics related activities given in each unit of book; the formative and summative assessment schemes were also probed into to explore the synchronization between teaching and assessment material. The findings realized a serious discrepancy that phonics content in the textbooks despite being relevant and appropriate could be potentially exploited to be taught through alphabetic method in case of not supported with some audio-visual material. Assessment schemes related to phonics skill of primary grade learners also assessed it mostly through written exercises that can have serious impact on the teaching practices and methodology of teachers as they may tend to make the learners cram the phonics concepts instead of uttering the sounds and develop the sound-letter association. On the basis of these findings, recommendations are made to use technology-enhanced tools for phonics teaching at primary level as supporting materials and assessing it as an oral skill.</p> Sadia Malik, Saiqa Imtiaz Asif Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Sun, 29 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Decoding of a Gendered Marginalized Discourse in V.S. Naipaul’s A House for Mr. Biswas <p>Focusing on Sara Mill’s Feminist stylistics in&nbsp;<em>A House for Mr. Biswas&nbsp;</em>(1961) by V.S. Naipaul (1961), the article provides an alternative understanding of the novel through the lens of the undertaken framework to reveal marginalization on gender basis. The disparity of the socio- cultural roles of men and women in the novel through a particular use of language divulges gender inequality in a society. The preference of masculinity engrossed in of preferable patriarchal titles, names, generic pronouns and professions leads to a gender labeling. The disparaging portrayal of women in the fictional representation of a postcolonial work manifests that women are discriminated against. It is substantial, therefore, to problematize gender representation through the application of “toolkit” (Mills, 1995, p.2). It is also one of the significant theoretical frameworks that critiques a literary piece to unearth concealed objectives wrought in an implicit and explicit language-use. Naipaul in the selected work represents through a language use - word, phrase/sentence, discourse to demonstrate how rampant socio-cultural gender norms play a pivotal role in upholding gender inequality. Therefore, the study concludes that submissive role of women through the specific use of discourse makes the application of feminist stylistics more pertinent to highlight the stereotypical gender norms that are used to strengthen patriarchal hegemony. Hence, socio-cultural gender norms with the collusion of a specific discourse used in the novel are coded for dominance of patriarchy and segregation of women subsequently.</p> Muhammad Shakil Ur Rehman, Saima Akhter Chattha, Zia Ullah Khan Niazi Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Claustrophobia in Monica Ali’s Brick Lane: Negotiating the Past with the Present <p>This article reworks the notion of “claustrophobia,” symbolically in relevance to expatriate fiction writing. Claustrophobia is an individual’s fear of being confined in an enclosed space. Qualitative in nature, this paper critically investigates Monica Ali’s <em>Brick Lane </em>(2003) that delineates a constant fear in the immigrant characters alienated from their host country. Globalisation owes much to provide rationale for the current study. Within the larger context of Diaspora, Sarup’s notion of migration, with both negative and positive implications, is used as a theoretical framework to study the juncture of expatriate desire of home and examine how exile causes an irrational fear entrapping immigrants in the wake of socio-cultural and economic differences. The present study refers to it as a state of “being ambivalent” and concludes that exile (forced or by choice) though deadening, regenerates life for those who exercise their energies to combat their existing situations. For others, it proves fatal. The study significantly provides an insight into South Asian culture and norms in comparison to British culture and through Ali’s work challenges the allegation against women’s writings being limited in experience, non-scientific and “womanly.</p> Humaira Riaz, Asfandyar Shah Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Cyberbullying Among University Students in Pakistan <p>In the present era of technology, cyber-bullying on social media is a rising concern all over the world. The current study aims at exploring the language used by bullies among university students on social media especially Facebook and Instagram so as to unfold how bullies exploit their fellows for dominance. The data was collected from five students of the university with the age ranging from 20-25 years. The participants provided the data in the form of screenshots of the chats. For the analysis of the data, Van Dijk’s three-dimensional model was used to analyze the discourse on three levels: text, social cognition, and social context in the context of the principles of Critical Discourse Analysis. The results and discussion revealed that the bullies exploited the victims via their language to achieve certain goals which included blackmailing and making the victims feel inferior by targeting their weak points. The study concluded that the bullies targeted the weaker fellows in the circle and maintained an imbalance of power by using harsh, offensive, abusive, and target-specific words. The victims faced despair, nervousness, hopelessness, insecurity, and in some cases psychological pressure leading to suicidal behavior.</p> Muzmmal Haider, Farhana Yasmin, Sharjeel Ashraf Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Analysis of the Perception of Teachers on the Inclusion of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) In the Curriculum of Teacher Education <p>The aim of this study is to explore the perception of aspiring teachers on promoting the education of sustainability (ESD). The ideology of ESD is paramount being one of the lifelong skills of 21st century. ESD empowers pupils to take informed decisions about the integrity of environment and economy keeping in view the cultural diversity. The study aims to explore the perception of aspiring teachers on promoting the education of sustainability (ESD) in the curriculum of teachers ‘education. The fundamental emphasizes of this paper is gathering a variety of participants’ perception of the implementation of ESD in teachers’ education curriculum. The paper utilized the primary qualitative design and conducted semi-structured interviews to have an in-depth analysis of the perception of final year students enrolled in B.Ed. program. The data is analyzed using the technique of thematic analysis. Three themes emerged out of the analysis (1) the role of primary education, (2) sustainability issues such as knowledge, understanding and attitudes, and (3) attitudes towards ESD. The findings reflected that teacher (enrolled in B.Ed.) positively opined incorporating ESD in the curriculum of teaching education to allow them to improve the existing practices.&nbsp; They suggested that this inclusion will help them save environment while promoting such practices among their students. Resultantly, it would lead to environmentally sustainable future. All the participants were of the view that ESD was no doubt highly desirable. The participants comprehended that ESD could be incorporated in various disciplines like science, history, geography etc. to promote the idea of sustainability across all the disciplines, In this Research Context ESD carries a lot of importance as the interview questions and answers provided a very clear-cut insight of the novice teachers who were enthusiastic to bring this innovation in the primary education by volunteering themselves to learn and educate themselves first for a successful implementation of ESD.</p> Qurratulain Ershad, Umaima Kamran, Lubna Umar Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Representation through interdiscursive references: A systemic functional (re)construction of Malala Yousufzai’s identity on Pakistani social media <p>This article focuses on the way the identity of a particular person is (re)constructed by different groups of a society. For this purpose, this article takes the case study of Malala Yousafzai and discusses how her identity is (re)constructed and (mis)represented by different groups on Pakistani social media through particular discursive choices. For this purpose, it particularly focuses on interdiscursivity, and integrates it with systemic functional representation. The social media users construct Malala Yousafzai’s identity in such a way that the past events of her life are constantly (re)echoed and foregrounded in order to interpret her identity at present. Moreover, the past events of her life are recontexualized through implicit and explicit interdiscursive references.</p> Snobra Rizwan, Hafiz Abdul Haseeb Hakimi, Muzzafar Qadir Bhatti Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Closing the Gaps in Cloze Letters to Editor: A Verbal Protocol Study <p>Originally, cloze procedure was introduced by Taylor (1953) in order to assess reading comprehension in the first language. The usefulness of close procedure has often been asserted as it is considered easy to administer and evaluate (Sadeghi, 2021) L1 and L2 reading comprehension. The present study was conducted to find out the impact of cloze instruction on the success in guessing abilities of L2 learners. The impact of function words and content words on the correct guesses of the deleted words was also explored. The theoretical framework given by Bengleil and Paribakht (2004) was adopted with some modifications. The study employed the texts of letters published in newspaper Pakistan Observer. Both control and experimental groups were asked to think aloud their thoughts processes during their hunt for the missing words. The instructional model CALLA___ presented by Chamot and O’ Malley (1994) _ was used. While the experimental group received cloze instruction, the control group was taught in the traditional way.The findings have revealed that after receiving instruction treatment the experimental group outperformed the control group in finding out the appropriate words for the blanks. Furthermore, the subjects of study made more successful attempts for the deleted function words than the deleted content words in the cloze texts.</p> Awais Shafiq, Abdullah Shafiq, Muhammad Shafiq Baloch Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Unveiling ‘Reality’ behind ‘Social Reality’: Breaking Gender Stereotypes and Reconstructing Identities in Hamid’s Exit West <p>The present paper is aimed at uncovering the fact that people’s gender identities which appear as ‘real’ turn out to be society’s predefined notions about men and women. Therefore, this study is intended at unveiling the existence of diverse gender realities hidden behind the socially constructed realities with reference to Hamid’s novel Exit West (2017). In order to analyze this perspective on gender in the said novel, Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘performativity’ serves as a valuable lens. Her concept of ‘performativity’ revolves around the importance of ‘doing’ rather than ‘being’ in defining one’s gender identity. By putting an emphasis on this notion of ‘doing’, the present research focuses on the analysis of the central characters namely Saeed and Nadia in Hamid’s novel. Maintaining Butler’s (1999) view, this study explores that Saeed and Nadia’s gender identities depend on what they ‘do’ in different contexts, rather than on what they ‘are’. It exposes how the protagonists have to assume certain roles under the compulsion of social norms in order to fit in the society they live in. In this sense, this research paper determines that Hamid’s novel not only unmasks certain gender stereotypes, but also breaks them by depicting its protagonists’ performance of alternative gender roles in different contexts. In the light of analysis done with the implication of Butler’s (1999) concept of<br>‘performativity’, the paper also suggests that Exit West (2017) can be regarded as an important initiative to redefine and reconstruct the notion of gender identities through text.</p> Mamona, Asra Khan, Uzma Sadiq Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Developing Bilingual Glossary (English-Urdu) for Tourists: A systematic Approach <p>Glossaries are created to provide information on a wide range of words and their usage, as well as to improve people's intercultural knowledge. This article covers the process of developing a bilingual English-Urdu glossary, with a focus on the tourism industry. It outlines all steps taken for the glossary compilation process and analyses the issues that glossary writers confront when working with a large number of foreign terminology, as well as their possible solutions. It demonstrates that certain decisions are made at various stages to provide an effective bilingual glossary product for users. The article suggests that bilingual glossaries be developed using a methodological approach that effectively meets the needs of dictionary users.</p> UMME SADIA, MUHAMMAD JAVED IQBAL , Hafiz Muhammad Qasim Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Chomsky's Contribution to Linguistics A Review <p>Cognition, language faculty, Universal Grammar, Principles and Parameters, Transformational Generative Grammar, Phrase Structure Rules, TransformationsThis review seeks to highlight Chomsky’s major contributions to the field of linguistics. He changed linguists’ conception about the nature of language, from an externalized to internalized approach. This shift also resulted in the language being thought of as a cognitive phenomenon rather than as a set of structures to be analyzed for their correctness or incorrectness. &nbsp;He argued that language is internalized, and not learned. His arguments to prove his stance introduced the concept of language faculty, its workings, Universal Grammar, Principles and Parameters, and Transformational and Generative Grammar. The TGG also significantly overhauled the existent phrase structure rules. These rules were brought to follow binarity principles that dictated that a node cannot have less than or more than two branches. Besides, the concept of Universal Grammar along with its principles and parameters, Chomsky simplified how the language acquisition process can be understood: instead of learning hundreds of rules, the human mind has to install a handful of principles and parameters.&nbsp;</p> Sonia Touqir, Touqir Nasir, Sajid Pervez Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evolution of Hispanic Crime Fiction in Fernanda Melchor's Hurricane Season and Paradais <p>Exploiting Glen S. Close’s study (2008), this paper attempts to explicate the position Fernanda Melchor occupies on the Hispanic literary scene: how her novels <em>Hurricane Season </em>and <em>Paradais </em>fit in the packed ranks of Hispanic crime fiction, the <em>novela negra</em>; how they are beholden to their antecedents and the differences they have with said antecedents. Amply endowed with the grim workings of the <em>novela negra</em>, both novels are quite comparable with their contemporaries. In the long line of <em>novela negra </em>authors, Melchor is a rare female, delving into crime and showing it to the world through the eyes of a woman, highlighting the addictions, the violence, the corruption, the debauchery endemic in Mexican society and the misogyny underlying most of them. Locked in an incessant battle of survival, her characters are mirthless, helpless, and ruthless, breeding vicious and virulent violence against each other and themselves.</p> Mehran Ahmad, Aamer Shaheen, Muhammad Asif Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Exploratory Study on Associative Work in Morocco: Prospects and Constraints <p><em>This paper essentially endeavors to grant a theoretical framework on the evolution of associative work in Morocco, underlining the pivotal role it performs in shaping minds and fostering a strong sense of belonging and community among people. Having primarily chosen a qualitative method to ferret out the significance of associative work, a systematic literature review is used to highlight and chronicle the formation and development of associations since the time of the French Protectorate in Morocco. </em></p> Bachiri Housseine, Er-regyby Fatima Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 20 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000