International Journal of Linguistics and Culture <p>International Journal of Linguistics and Culture (IJLC)is an international, peer-reviewed and open-access bi-annual journal, correspondence in the fields of arts, and humanities. The aim of <strong>IJLC </strong>is to publish Original research articles , review articles in the fields of humanities and social science such as literature, linguistics, anthropology, business studies, communication studies, , cross cultural studies, economics, education, history, information science, international relations, media studies, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, religious studies, and so on. The main objective of <strong>IJLC</strong> is to provide an intellectual platform for the national/international scholars. Its aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in humanities and social science and become the leading journal in the fields around the globe. The journal provides insightful explorations of new educational concepts and acceptes educational practices. This is independent of its kind that inspires up-to-date research endeavour from research territory, latest deliberation, artistic trend, cultural nuances, cross cultural exploration and subsequent innovation of subjects concerned.</p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor, The Women University Multan</p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Dr. Asmat A. Sheikh</strong></p> <p>Associate Professor,</p> <p>Department of English, The Women University Multan</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> en-US (Editor (IJLC)) (Mr. Asghar Ali) Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Portrayal of Islamic Ideology: Modality analysis of PTB English language textbooks <p><em>This paper investigates English language textbooks from the point of view of cultural development in pedagogical text. The focus of present study was to analyze contrasting and shared perceptions of congenital Islamic culture in pedagogical text broadly written in English language textbooks formed by Punjab Textbook Board (PTB) at Elementary level i.e. 6<sup>th</sup>, 7<sup>th</sup>, and 8<sup>th</sup> grade classes.&nbsp; Appropriate implications of linguistic modality make possible to build ideological viewpoint related to cultural development in political, social, institutional and media discourse, so, using critical approach with the combination of CDA framework by Fairclough and SFG by Halliday.&nbsp; This study examines the said institutional discourse from different perspectives to clue that how fundamental Islamic philosophy is sharply described under different circumstances.&nbsp; The study is also an exposure of authors’ viewpoint related to portrayal of Islamic culture and needs of cultural sensitivity in such a text related to young learners’ education. In this way, this paper reveals the straightforward instances related to implicit portrayal of Islamic ideology with the help of numerous modality indicators.&nbsp; It has been observed that language textbooks are not only an authentic source of language learning but also a reliable system of cultural development. Findings of this paper expose that writers, policy makers and publishers of PTB want to portray Islamic ideology intentionally within the pedagogical text of English language textbooks at elementary level, so, the findings of this paper would be helpful for learners, educationists, course designers, institutions and language teachers. </em></p> <p>Keywords: Modality, Textbooks, Ideology, Discourse</p> Adnan Tahir, Rashid Mahmood, Afzal ul Haque Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 English and Chinese as a foreign language at institutional level in Pakistan: Teaching methods and Strategies <p>The study focuses on discovering what approach Pakistani teachers are taking with regard to Chinese and English language teaching and can it promote language learning in the manner they teach? The current study explores numerous styles of teaching approaches and teaching techniques that Chinese and English teachers find to be successful in teaching a language class. This thesis primarily pursued quantitative analysis methodology. The survey approach was primarily used to gather data as defined and quantified by SPSS 23 statistical tools. In data analysis, the researcher uses descriptive statistics to examine and interpret results, obtained by questionnaires. This study's sample contained both Chinese and English students at the institutional level. In specific, for data gathering, a total of 80 respondents were approached from the Faisalabad district. The targeted respondents answered a questionnaire structured in the framework of the Likert scale. The results suggest that English students were considered to be active learners, whereas Chinese students deemed passive learners. This study demonstrates that institutes and organizations of Chinese and English languages need various modifications or changes, on applicable linguistic views regarding language instruction in Pakistan.</p> <p>Keywords: FLT, teaching methods, teaching strategies, Chinese language, English language.</p> Aisha Ilyas, Arslan Tahir, Muhammad Ismail Tagga Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF THE RIVER BETWEEN BY NGUGI WA THIANG’O: STUDY OF GENDER OTHERING <p>The present research is a Critical Discourse Analysis of single postcolonial text <em>The</em> <em>River</em> <em>Between </em>by Ngugi (1965)<em>.</em> It focuses to explore the discursive techniques employed in the selected text to propagate the concept of <em>gendered Othering</em>. Aim of the researcher is to find how the colonizers <em>other</em> the Kenyans by presenting their stereotypical representations in their discourse and how Ngugi unmasks the Whiteman’s self constructed ideologies about them. The researcher employs Van Dijk’s (2004) analytical model to decode the text critically at words, phrases, sentences and discourse levels. The analytical devices adopted for the present research from this model are:' Actor description', 'categorization', ‘lexicalization', 'authority', ‘polarization' and ‘metaphor'. Further linguistic devices included in the model are: ‘repetition’ and ‘Absolute Term’. All these discursive techniques have been employed to decode the randomly selected data from the given text. The findings show that the theme of gendered <em>othering</em> is very dominant in the selected text and all the mentioned analytical devices have been frequently employed in the selected text to propagate the ideological representations of culture, gender and race.</p> Ghulam Yasin, Shaukat Ali Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fragmentation and Postmodern studies: An analysis of Mohsin Hamid’s Novel “How to get filthy rich in rising Asia” <p>In this study, the fragmentation as postmodernist narrative technique in Mohsin Hamid’s novel “How to get filthy rich in rising Asia” is examined. He uses structural inequalities, grammatically incorrect sentences, phrases and dependent clauses. The term fragmentation is coined by Bell Hooks to highlight the problem of “hierarchy of oppression” within the feminist paradigm. Fragmentation is the major thematic concern of postmodern art that sets new parameters for the narrative techniques of postmodern literature. Fragmentation in the literary work involves complexity on semantic level where the various words act as signifier and signified at the same time. Therefore, this study probes the fundamentals of fragmentation in the text that reflects the radical changes in the postmodern society and focuses on the little narratives that create fragmented truth and cause anarchy, uncertainty and chaos in the world.</p> Uzma Munir, Qamar Sumaira Sumaira Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Celebration of the indigenous Culture and Identity in the plays of AJOKA Theatre <p><em>The writers of subcontinent reacted against the idea of ascendancy under the horrid shades of imperialism by thrashing back the luggage of hegemony and cultural imperialism. Being a colony of British Empire for a long time, they lived and experienced as prisoners bounded in the shackles of European cultures. With their independence as free nation it was compulsory to wash the stains of British culture and rejuvenate their local culture and identity. For this, the writers and artists of subcontinent have been trying to celebrate and promote their native culture and indigenous identity local language at national and international level through their works and presentations. Their participation for the revival of indo-Pak history, culture, heritage and traditions helped them to save and glorify their identity as nations. The present research aimed at exposing the efforts of a well renowned Pakistani theatre, Ajoka theatre for celebrating the indigenous culture and identity of subcontinent in its plays and presentations. </em><em>Ajoka theatre has revealed to the imperialists through the excellent presentation of its plays that Pakistani nation is rich in its culture. Its depiction of villages, lake areas, local traditions, deserts like “Rohi” labor class, traditional costumes and music is the real picture of indo-Pak culture. </em><em>Ajoka theatre brought on the sage the characters like Bullah and Dara Sheikho for the reassertion and glorification of their indigenous culture and identity. The study also explored that Ajoka Theatre had worked not only at international level to present the positive image of Pakistan but raised the voice at home ground by touching the sensitive issues like gender discrimination, dictatorship, identity, poverty, class struggle and sectarianism. </em></p> Saimaan Ashfaq, Ambreen Bibi, Khalida Sharif, Sunila Rashid Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000