International Journal of Linguistics and Culture http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs <p>International Journal of Linguistics and Culture (IJLC)is an international, peer-reviewed and open-access bi-annual journal, correspondence in the fields of arts, and humanities. The aim of <strong>IJLC </strong>is to publish Original research articles , review articles in the fields of humanities and social science such as literature, linguistics, anthropology, business studies, communication studies, , cross cultural studies, economics, education, history, information science, international relations, media studies, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, religious studies, and so on. The main objective of <strong>IJLC</strong> is to provide an intellectual platform for the national/international scholars. Its aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in humanities and social science and become the leading journal in the fields around the globe. The journal provides insightful explorations of new educational concepts and acceptes educational practices. This is independent of its kind that inspires up-to-date research endeavour from research territory, latest deliberation, artistic trend, cultural nuances, cross cultural exploration and subsequent innovation of subjects concerned.</p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor, The Women University Multan</p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href="mailto:vc@wum.edu.pk">vc@wum.edu.pk</a></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Dr. Asmat A. Sheikh</strong></p> <p>Associate Professor,</p> <p>Department of English, The Women University Multan</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> en-US editor.ijlc@wum.edu.pk (Editor (IJLC)) asghar.ali@wum.edu.pk (Mr. Asghar Ali) Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A Case of Multiple Identities in Globalized World of The Black Album http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/17 <p><em>&nbsp;</em>In this paper, it is debated that identity is more a matter of practicality than a philosophy in the colonial and postcolonial world. There is a detailed delineation on cultural as well as cross cultural identities, given to migrants living in a metropolis. The researcher has focused on transnational English Novel <em>The Black Album</em> written by Hanif Kureishi in 1995.&nbsp; Philosophies and critical notions concerning hybridity and cultural globalization are focused and it is argued that migration is also a part of a transnational culture. The researcher through dominant discourses on culture and identity of globalized nations has explored the selected literary writing. The purpose is to find out whether English literature particularly literature writing on migrants are also dealing with same philosophies of identity or they are promoting diverse issues. The research has concluded that no doubt cultural purity is significant and essential to survive but, in a metropolis, where multiple nations are living, this cultural purity must be guarded with ambivalence when question of multiple identities arises. The research has explored different factors that are involved in globalization of different cultures and then promote cultural hybridity with an influence on identity of an individual, and community, or a culture.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Zoobia Abbas, Dr. Zia Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/17 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A CORPUS-BASED STUDY OF CONJUNCTIVE COHESION IN PAKISTANI RESEARCH ARTICLES http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/19 <p>Conjunctive cohesion is an indispensable linguistic signpost that writers use to create a logical relationship between the parts of the text (Halliday and Hasan, 1976). In the present study, the conjunctive analysis of Pakistani Social Science Articles (PSSA) has been carried out. This study is corpus-based, and the corpus comprised 250 articles that were taken from five Social science disciplines: Applied Linguistics (AL), English Literature (EL), Business Administration (BA), Sociology (SL), and Psychology (PL). The distribution of 50 articles from each discipline had been retrieved from online sources. The frequencies of conjunctive features (CFs) were counted and compared, and conjunctive features (CFs) were studied functionally. A comprehensive model on conjunctive cohesion (CC) has been proposed for the classification of cohesive devices. The results revealed that all the writers used extension conjunction more frequently than other conjunctions. Additive cohesion, a sub-category of extension conjunction,&nbsp; was used more frequently across the academic writings of all disciplines in general and discipline of EL in particular. The sub-categories of elaboration and enhancement conjunction, exemplification and causative, were also found to be used more frequently in addition to the additive cohesion. Consequently, it was concluded that the academic writings of EL had high frequencies of conjunctive cohesion, and various categories of conjunctive cohesion were used to serve certain purposes. <em>This study has </em>practical implications for social science teachers and scholars in addition to EFL/ESL students.</p> Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Qasim, Ammara Batool, Muhammad Shafqat Nawaz Copyright (c) 2021 http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/19 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Practicing Dogme ELT Techniques to Improve Academic Essay Writing: An Evaluative Study of Learners’ Perception http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/18 <p>Among the teaching approaches and methods that are currently used worldwide, Dogme ELT is a modern one that claims to show better results because of creating a natural learning environment. This action research was performed in order to examine the intermediate level learners’ feedback about Dogme ELT to improve essay writing skills. The data was collected after teaching through Dogme techniques and analyzed by applying mixed methods. The learners’ responses to motivational aspects of learning, their participation and performance in the class and the impacts of Dogme Pedagogy, recorded after Dogme ELT treatment, demonstrated that Dogme ELT techniques proved themselves very effective and successful in improving essay-writing skills. Many of the participants of this class wished to have been taught through such teaching-learning techniques from the very beginning. All these responses showed better learning outcomes by using Dogme Pedagogy to improve academic essay writing skills of intermediate level learners.</p> Muhammad Amjad, Dr. Adnan Tahir, Dr. Zia Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/18 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A TRANSLATION STUDY OF SELECTED SURAHS OF HOLY QURAN ON COMPARATIVE ANALYTICAL BASIS OF HUMAN TRANSLATION VS MACHINE TRANSLATION http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/21 <p>This research explores the comparisons to human performance which are often made in quite general and exaggerated terms. Thus, it is important to be able to account for differences accurately. This paper reports a simple, descriptive scheme for comparing translations, which is applied to four Surahs of the Holy Quran, and compares the human translation with machine translation. The method applied for the study is qualitative. Within the qualitative domains, one of the four methods of assessment of translation has been adopted from Waddington (2001). The analysis is done on four parameters namely textual, syntactic, semantic, and social. The results obtained from the data confirm that human translation is far better and superior in comparison with machine translation as human translation almost covers the four above-mentioned aspects. On the other hand, machine translation lacks and misses many important levels of translation and does not convey the true spirit of meaning from one language to another language. However, machine translation is quicker and faster as compared to human translation. It is concluded that machine translation is not as reliable, trustworthy, and dependable as human translation. This study has a prospect for further studies with some limitations of human translation.</p> Hassan Bin Zubair, Dr. Saba Sadia, Dr. Masroor Sibtain Copyright (c) 2021 http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/21 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 USE OF ROMAN SCRIPT FOR WRITING URDU LANGUAGE http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/20 <p>The purpose of the paper is to highlight the need of evolving a standardized Romanization table, which is used for writing Urdu language on mobile phones, laptops or tabs etc. Use of Urdu language in Roman script is in vogue in our daily life. Internet and mobile users have conveniently adopted Roman script since long for writing Urdu. But it is being used in an irregular and disorganized way. Therefore, an organized and systematic Roman script is imperative to explore ample possibilities of its usage. The current study is qualitative in nature. The Urdu Romanization table is used as a tool in this regard. This tool has been framed by finding out equivalents of Urdu alphabets in the Roman letters so that the sounds and etymology of the traditional Pearsio Arabic script of Urdu from different languages (Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, and Turkish) could be used and preserved in a proper way.</p> Zahra Ansari , Shaukat Ali, Fatima Khan Copyright (c) 2021 http://ijlc.wum.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/20 Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000