International Journal of Linguistics and Culture <p>International Journal of Linguistics and Culture (IJLC)is an international, peer-reviewed and open-access bi-annual journal, correspondence in the fields of arts, and humanities. The aim of <strong>IJLC </strong>is to publish Original research articles , review articles in the fields of humanities and social science such as literature, linguistics, anthropology, business studies, communication studies, , cross cultural studies, economics, education, history, information science, international relations, media studies, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, religious studies, and so on. The main objective of <strong>IJLC</strong> is to provide an intellectual platform for the national/international scholars. Its aims to promote interdisciplinary studies in humanities and social science and become the leading journal in the fields around the globe. The journal provides insightful explorations of new educational concepts and acceptes educational practices. This is independent of its kind that inspires up-to-date research endeavour from research territory, latest deliberation, artistic trend, cultural nuances, cross cultural exploration and subsequent innovation of subjects concerned.</p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor, The Women University Multan</p> <p><strong>Email:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>CHIEF EDITOR</strong></span></p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan</strong></p> <p>Chairperson/ Assistant Professor,</p> <p>Department of English, The Women University Multan</p> <p>Email:</p> <p> </p> en-US (Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan) (Mr. Asghar Ali) Wed, 24 Nov 2021 08:38:34 +0000 OJS 60 Liberal and Conservative Academic Values: Issues of Cultural Differences and Hybridity in Zadie Smith’s on Beauty <p>This research explores the relationship between two racially different characters Belsey and Kiki in Zadie Smith's <em>On Beauty.</em> Belsey is a white person from Britain who marries African-American Kiki. The clash between liberal and conservative academic values and leads the cultural ambivalence due to the mixed race. The marital relationship between the two different races results in disharmony and hence became the victim of separate culture multi adjustment and troubles with children from mixed race. Kiki and Carlene remain best friends despite the failed relationship of their family. This research is qualitative in nature. In the line of Homi K. Bhabha, this research argues that Zadie Smith presents the culturally ambivalent character. Characters show the complex genealogy of each family and foretell the impact of cultural and familiar history will have on their London-born children. There is a conflict between white and black. In the novel, the story covers the difficulties of cultural differences and their children as they are comforted by the different societies. Kiki is in an ambivalent and in-between state. She is in hybridity: she always tries to fit herself in the white surrounding that further leads her to frustration, ambivalence, alienation, and dislocation. It brings the loss of identity. This research finds that the characters are in search of their identities. They rebel against each other to prove their identity.</p> Hassan Bin Zubair, Saima Larik, Badar uz Zaman Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Theoretical Framework: An Investigation into Transversal Competencies Among Pakistani Undergraduates <p>A theoretical framework is indispensable for a research study to ground it in theoretical constructs. The purpose of the present study was to develop the theoretical framework for a mixed-methods study on transversal competencies. The strategies of developing the theoretical framework were followed including: alignment of research problem and title of the study; key variables of the study; review of the literature; relevant variables of the study; selection of theory(ies) which can best explain the key variables of the study; discuss the propositions of the selected theory and point out their relevance to your research. The theory of <em>Zone of Proximal Development</em> by Vygotsky (1978) in alignment with Constructivism paradigm was selected to understand and explain the transversal competencies as the key variable of the present study. A <em>Theoretical Framework of TVC for Lifelong Learning </em>was developed. It defined the key variables of the study including: <em>departmental, pedagogical and institutional strategies</em> to analyze and interpret the data to be gathered, understand the variables in view of definitions, and build knowledge by validating or challenging theoretical propositions:<em> MKO, Contextual aspect, Social aspect, Personal aspect, and Scaffolding</em>. It was a framework to not only interpret the new research data for future but also a response to new problems for identifying strategies. It was significant to limit the scope of the study by focusing on the key variables. &nbsp;</p> Farhana Yasmin, Dr. Muhammad Islam Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Interplay of Simulacrum, Hyper-reality and Distorted Identity in Hamid’s Fiction: A Postmodern Paradigm <p>The present research is an exploration of the interplay between simulacrum, hyper-reality and identity as presented in Hamid’s fiction. Simulation and hyper-reality created through media and globalization profoundly affect the socio-cultural identities of the various male and female characters in the novel in both positive and negative ways. Furthermore, consumer capitalism, westernization and hyper-mediated experiences make the characters believe in false realities thus leading them to chaos and identity crisis. These hyper-realties push the characters to undergo mental, emotional, psychological and socio-cultural conflicts. Thus, in an attempt to seek their identity and true self through blind imitation of the western culture, they are led further away from their cultural roots. The theoretical insights for this study shall be drawn from postmodern theory, specifically Baudrillard’s concept of simulacrum and hyper-reality. This qualitative inquiry shall be carried out by close reading and analysis of the selected textual lines in the context of the chosen framework. The significance of this research lies in the fact that it demonstrates how fictional characters specifically and humans generally are increasingly pushed to dwell in a hyper-reality created through simulation due to globalization. The repercussions of which are far reaching including a crisis of one’s own identity and perception of self in a society that is increasingly being disoriented due to the flux of globalization.</p> Fariha Chaudhary, Syeda Amarah Zahid Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Fri, 24 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ESL Lexical Inferencing for the Unknown Words in Newspaper Editorials at Advanced Level <p><em>The study aims at exploring the inferential behaviours of the ESL learners in generating the meanings of the unknown words faced in reading editorials of newspapers. It further notices the impact of instructional treatment on the use of knowledge sources and their relationship with success, the effect of syntactic property of the unknown words, and the difficulties faced in lexical inferencing while interacting with a text. The theoretical framework of knowledge sources adopted in the study was given by </em><em>Bengeleil and Paribakht (2004). Data were collected through introspective verbal protocols and observation. The study used the texts of the editorials published in native newspaper The Washington Post. </em><em>Flesch Reading Ease Measure was employed to compare readability of the editorials. The study is quasi-experimental which includes pretest, instructional treatment and posttest. </em><em>It uses Winograd and Hare’s (1988) model of instruction due to its cognitive usefulness. The analysis of selected verbal protocols gave insight to the inferential behaviours of the subjects while using linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge sources in the pursuit of meaning of the unknown words. The instructional treatment had a significant effect on the sources in lexical inferencing. It was found out that the parts of speech of the unknown words had effect on ease or difficulty in deducing their meanings. The study sheds light on various reasons of incorrect inferences. </em></p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>ESL Reading, Lexical Inferencing, Editorials, Introspection, Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Knowledge Sources, Syntactic Property of Unknown Words</p> Muhammad Shafiq Baloch, Naveed Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Postcolonial Subject as Modern Orient: A Critical Analysis of Shamsie’s Home Fire <p>This paper aims to explore the evolution and portrayal of the modern Orients in Pakistani fiction and attempts to determine the causes, factors and impact of this shift from simple orient to New Orient. New orient is a discourse being popularized by the west under the influence of Islamophobia to generate a specific type of violent orient whose main job is to spread terrorism and is therefore dangerous. The similar discourses are being followed by the writers from non-western areas of the world and are deeply connected with the formerly colonized country. &nbsp;The new orient is an unwanted person whose loyalties with the identity, community, race and language are constantly shifting in his portrayal in the fiction. This necessitates a debate and discussion about this new orient. This research study delimits to Shamsie’s <em>Home Fire</em> to investigate the new orient and to determine the level of change that has occurred in the patterns of representation in the 21<sup>st</sup> century under the forces of globalization, neo-colonialism and islamophobia. Above all, this orient is not represented by the European writer but by the Postcolonial writers, such as Shamsie. The writers intend to read the selected chunks of the text under the lens of new-Orientalism and evaluate the portrayals of Aneeka and Parvaiz as the new-orientals, as portrayed by Shamsie. The most probable outcome of the study is that the post 9/11 fiction has given birth to a new set of issues related to the Orient and their settlements and has brought more sophistication in the characters of orient and hence they have diverted from their traditional portrayals as Orients.</p> Zia Ahmed, Hafsa Qadir Buzdar, Umaima Kamran Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Personalized Reflection on Online Learning in Morocco: Pedagogical Gains and Pitfalls <p><em>With the advantages of rich content, strong personalization, flexible course time, easy sharing, and high learning efficiency, the emergence and development of online education has become an important connotation and distinctive feature of education modernization. The use of information technology to promote the renewal of educational concepts, methods, and approaches is a palpable marker for our society’s advancement in terms of digitalization and computerization of educational resources. In fact, this has given rise to emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, big data, and the Internet of Things (IOT). It must be noted that the current Moroccan education model shows diversified trends, and thus this new mode of learning abundantly introduces various types of intelligent education systems that emerge on a perpetual basis. As a result, the class content and the learning context of students can be tracked at any time, which is conducive to fathoming out the individualization and differentiation of students in a timely manner.</em></p> Dr. Housseine Bachiri Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Studying Usage of EFL Dictionary at Graduate Level in South Punjab <p>This research aims to study the dictionary using habits among the learners of English as<br />a second language in the South Punjab region of Pakistan, their reference skills, and look-up<br />behaviours. Literate people usually keep and consult a dictionary for negotiating with meaning, and in the case of dealing with the lexis of a foreign language, dictionary usage assumes far greater importance. Dictionary using skills in the EFL context assume considerable significance in ELT classrooms where dictionary skills are emphasized as the bedrock of learning the English language with an optimal level of proficiency. Lexicographers take into view the factors such as lack of dictionary using skills, behavioural factors, L1 background, and desired goals for command of L2 as key variables in compiling dictionaries. It is questionnaire-based research that employed a mixed-method approach. The objectives were set to explore the effects of basic dictionary skills and suggesting better strategies to exploit the monolingual EFL dictionary to the maximal potential. The theoretical framework of this study was based on Tono (2001). Data was collected through a questionnaire having close-ended as well as open-ended questions. 240 learners of English, both male and female, at the graduate level in public as well as private universities and colleges of Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, and Bahawalpur divisions, were involved in the study as respondents. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Findings showed that L1 background, L2 proficiency level, students’ behavioural factors, and untrained and inexperienced teachers were the cause of faulty dictionary use and lack of references of skills among EFL learners.</p> Masroor Sibtain, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim, Qurat-ul-Ain Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Use of Irony as a Feministic Device to Deter Gender-Nationalistic Duo in Meatless Days <p><em>The analogy of critical representation of the feminine issues prohibits the sustained continuation of the ideological manuscript of gender division in Pakistan. The Postcolonial nativity, the charisma of nationalism, the rigid concentration of aristocratic Westernization create a hard line between the social, cultural, and political identification of regional/national roles after the establishment of Pakistan. Bhabha (1994) reminds us that ‘postcoloniality is a salutary reminder of the persistent neo-colonial relations within new world order’(p.06). The structure of crucial gender boundaries is drawn in Pakistani society to promote the collective nationalistic consciousness in the wake of political achievements. Whereas, ‘the recesses of the domestic space become sites for history’s most intricate invasions’ (1994, p.09).This invasion confuses the ‘borders between home and world’ and combines the public and private to a more disorienting vision of life. This paper tries to recollect the gist of deformed gender rhetoric in the nationalistic restructuring of Pakistani society in Meatless Days by Sara Suleri. The paper concentrates on the artistic development in the course of the memoir to identify the irony of people as a dichotomy between the real and the fictional re-appropriation of Postcolonial Pakistan.</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Key Words:&nbsp; </strong>Feminism, Nationalistic consciousness, Gender-boundaries, &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Memoir, Irony, Postcolonial Pakistan.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Shaista Andleeb Shaista, Dr. Muhammad Asif Khan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Life Style Changings and Depression among the Married and Unmarried Nurses of Multan <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The current research was directed to examine the association between life style changings (age, marital status, duty hours) and depression among the married and unmarried nurses of Multan. <strong>Methodology.</strong> Data was taken from (n=150) nurses through stratified proportional sampling method. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Independent Sample T-Test and A Generalized Linear Regression Model studied relations between lifestyle aspects and depression. <strong>Main Findings:</strong> The result showed that life styles changings (age, marital status and duty hours) have significant positive relationship with depression. Regression findings revealed life styles changings (age, marital status and duty hours) were the significant predictors of depression. However, results also showed that mean score of depression was high in married nurses as compared to unmarried nurses. <strong>Application of this Study:</strong> The present study will help to understand the consequences of depression especially among nurses. Existing policies and coping strategies could be inquired and could probably to improve to better help this population. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle variations to improve their work-life balance and protect their functioning at work and individual well-being. <strong>Novelty/Originality of this Study</strong>: Based on this study, it is not only particular for professionals or nurses to be aware of depression toward better life in the Pakistani society but also to be educated the culture itself and clinical area.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS: </strong>Life Styles Changings, Depression, Nurses, Multan.</p> Syed Muzaffar Hussain, Saralah Devi Mariamdaram Chethiyar, Nabisah Binti Ibrahim Binti Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Feminist Stylistic Pursuit: Investigation of Sidhwa’s The Bride (1990) to Decode Gendered Language-Use <p><em>By applying Sara Mill’s Feminist Stylistics (1995), the study aims to unfold the implicit gender stereotyping in Sidhwa’s&nbsp;The Bride(1990). The fictional work of Sidhwa is investigated to problematize how gender representation strengthens the proposition of Sara Mills (1995) that men are described linguistically according to their names, titles, profession and physical appearance that lead to make them superior in comparison to women. By implying the feminist stylistics as a “toolkit” (Mills, 1995, p.2), it is to highlight a particular type of sexist language-use in the novel that paints a hegemonic ideology for gender disparity. The key objective of the study is to question through the language use as is recommended by the undertaken framework - word, phrase/sentence, discourse to demonstrate how physical appearances, hair style, title-addresses, names and clothing etc. play an overriding role to uphold gender disparity. The ethnic and religious identification of people are categorized also on their specific dresses and get-ups to manifest disparity based on socio-cultural norms. The findings of the present research recommend that socio-cultural conventional gender taboos are manufactured through a specific language-use to serve masculine’s interests as a sign of authority and dominance over women. The culturally gendered language portrayed in the novel is meant to discriminate against women, if they resist it, they are treated as ‘other’ and ‘unnatural’ by male dominated society</em>.&nbsp;</p> Muhmmad Shakil Ur Rehman, Nazia Suleman, Mohammad Shafi Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Linguistics and Culture Wed, 24 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An EFL Classroom Oral Language and Group Work Observation: A Pilot Study <p><em>In Pakistani EFL context where speaking skill is hardly assessed, it becomes a challenging task for a researcher to find an appropriate and valid instrument to observe and analyse the speaking activities and the learning on the basis of these activities.&nbsp; This study is to validate the adapted versions of instruments of Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (SOLOM) and the Group Participation Observation Checklist. From SOLOM only fluency measurement scale was adapted and used for this study. These instruments were piloted and the data was collected through video recording of a class and audio recordings of interviews of two participants. For validity check the data was shared with three inter-raters for Inter-Rater reliability.&nbsp; The data was analysed using the Percentage agreement of raters and Cohen Kappa coefficient. The results validated the instruments and the instruments were found appropriate to be used in the main study with slight changes.</em></p> Ishfaque Ahmed Abbasi, Elizabeth M Anthony Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000